Nutrition screening enables healthcare providers to systematically assess patients' overall nutritional status, diagnose malnutrition, identify underlying conditions that lead to malnutrition, and plan necessary interventions. Diet evaluation is the process of evaluating what people eat by using one or more intake indicators. It is the best approach to identifying nutrients that the individual or stakeholders are likely to underconsume or overconsume. It can also be used to identify dietary patterns and preferences.
Nutritional status represents the satisfaction of the human body's needs for nutritional and protective substances and their reflection in physical, physiological and biochemical characteristics, functional capacity and health status. Clinical evaluation is the simplest and most practical method of determining a patient's nutritional well-being. Nutritional surveillance: Continuous monitoring of the nutritional status of selected population groups (for example, nutritional status is a more complete term, referring to health status, as it is affected by nutrition. Nutritional status assessment includes, in addition to dietary intake, indicators of nutrition-related health status, such as anthropometric measurements, hematological and biochemical tests, clinical signs of deficiencies, and risk factors for diet-associated diseases (e.g., has been validated as a marker) nutritional status, correlates very well with nutritional status and, at the same time, is a good predictor of surgical outcome, increased length of hospital stay, higher rehospitalization rates and decreased physical condition.
Nutritional care plans should be developed in a multidisciplinary approach and implemented to maintain and improve patients' nutritional status. Nutritional evaluation should be performed on patients identified as at nutritional risk according to step one (i). Detection of nutritional risk with simple and rapid tools should be performed systematically on each patient at hospital admission to detect patients who are at nutritional risk or malnourished. Nutritional assessment includes a normative assessment of dietary intake and nutritional status indicators to estimate, for example, the proportion of the population at risk.
The need to understand and describe people's health status, a basic principle of medicine, led to the development of methods to assess nutritional status as appreciation of the important relationship between nutrition and health increased. Clinical Evaluation: Estimation of nutritional status based on recording a medical history and performing a physical examination to detect signs (observations made by a qualified observer) and symptoms (patient-reported manifestations) associated with malnutrition. The objective of this review article is to provide a comprehensive overview of nutritional assessment and evaluation methods that can contribute to effective and well-structured nutritional management (cascade of processes) of hospitalized patients. The Inflammatory Nutrition Prognostic Indicator (PINI) can be useful for using laboratory values to predict which hospitalized elderly patients need long-term care based on nutrition indicators.
Typically, nutritional assessment systems employ several of these methods for comprehensive assessment of nutritional status. An overview of the history of nutritional assessments, background information, and other nutritional considerations is provided.